cat

org-mode as a Static Site Generator

Created: 2022-06-14 Last updated: 2022-06-14

Introduction

There are a lot of static site generators out there, you can think of Jekyll, Hugo, sblg. Those are good (I guess) but, as I was too lazy to check them out, I tried to perform the same task (In this case, generating a website from a language in a weird markup language) that looks very much the same as it was written in pure html. And emacs’ org-mode was able to do this perfectly. Not much flaws were found in this process.

And yes, this article was written in org-mode.

For questions about this article, feel free to reach me out at teru (dash) sama (at) riseup (dot) net.

The basics

Every emacs users (I hope) knows about org-mode, it is a very powerful markup language, in my opinion, better than markdown as it uses more common sense, like bold text are written with only one asterisk and italic text is written with slashes, which makes more sense inside my head than markdown’s one asterisk for italic and two asterisks for bold. The headers are written with an asterisk followed by the text, and you can insert code blocks with #+begin_src <language>. (and close them with #+end_src) And guess what! Emacs will export the source code highlighted to html! The output colors will be defined by your current Emacs theme

When you are finished writing your .org file, you can export it to html with M-x org-html-export-to-html. This will create a .html file with the same name of the .org file. You can open it and it won’t be so much different than a .md file converted to .html using pandoc. But we can fix that using the multiple org-mode options!

org-mode options

There are a lot of org-mode. You can check all of them here and here. Check them if you need an option that is not here. Pretty sure there’s an option for whatever you want.

So, when you make a website, you most likely want to make it somewhat artistic, so you want to add, say, a header, and a stylesheet file. This is possible with org-mode options. The following text lines will insert a header file and a stylesheet file into the resulting .html file:

#+INCLUDE: "inc/header.html" export html
#+HTML_HEAD_EXTRA: <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="css/styles.css"/>

This will include, before everything in the .org file, the content of the file located at inc/header.html. And will append that <link/> HTML tag to the <head> section of the resulting .html file. So it will give the stylesheet to the resulting html site. n But by default org-mode gives us the number of headings, preambles and postambles, a table of contents, some html style we never asked for, and a lot of things we never asked for. But obviously, theres an option to take care of all of that!

#+options: toc:nil
#+OPTIONS: html-postamble:nil
#+OPTIONS: html-style:nil
#+OPTIONS: num:nil p:nil pri:nil stat:nil tags:nil tasks:nil tex:nil timestamp:nil toc:nil title:nil

That snippet inside the codeblock will disable all the things we don’t want in a personal website (but maybe we want in an academic article?). I don’t know. The thing is that you can disable or enable them as needed. As you should know, nil in emacs-lisp means false and t means true. So if you want to enable some option of those you give it t instead of nil.

So you have to add that to all the .org files you have. You can probably setup those options as default by setting the family of org-export variables to nil as needed. But I keep it that way because I am too lazy to set all of those variables.

Then, you have to do M-x org-html-export-to-html in each .org file and upload them to your webroot. And everything should work when you visit your website. If not, check if the path of the css and header is correct (In this post i’m assuming your .html files are in inc/ and your css is in css/styles.css, which are both relative paths).

Inserting custom HTML in Org

Something great about Markdown is that you can insert HTML by simply adding it as normal text. You cannot do this in org-mode. You can’t just put <b>thing</b> and expect org-mode to compile that as html. You have to use an export block. Those work just as the codeblocks we’ve seen before. But instead of src, it’s export, so it will be #+begin_export html. Following there’s an example

This is custom HTML (it has the style attribute) inserted into org-mode :D

Exporting a whole directory with .org files to html

For most of the time running this website using org-mode as static site generator, i used to run M-x org-html-export-to-html as needed. But I thought this was unnecessary and repetitive and there wasn’t really a need to do that. I wanted something like make. Where you run and you get everything compiled. And if a file didn’t change, don’t compile it again (as it isn’t needed). So I asked about this in the #emacs irc channel:

<qorg11> Hello, is it possible to use org-html-export-to-html in a
emacs lisp program to export a file? Documentation says it only
"exports the current buffer", But i want to export all the .org files
in a directory as html
<qorg11> (I'm using org-mode as a ssg)
<wgreenhouse> >  export all the .org files in a directory as html
<wgreenhouse>  qorg11: it sounds like you want org-publish
<wgreenhouse>  (info "(org) Publishing")

So I checked out that “org-publish” thing this IRC user was talking about. And indeed it was exactly what I needed. I had to read the documentation. And I came to this following emacs-lisp files which can compile my website just well:

;; Change this
(setq org-publish-project-alist
     '(("qorg11.net"
            :base-directory "~/repos/qorg_org/"
            :publishing-directory "~/repos/qorg_org/out_html"
            :section-numbers nil
            :publishing-function org-html-publish-to-html
            :table-of-contents nil
            :recursive t
            )))

(defun make-qorg ()
     (interactive)
     (org-publish "qorg11.net")

And that’s it! Everytime I want to recompile this website I just have to run M-x make-qorg and org-publish will do the rest for me!

Conclusion

org-mode is a great markup language that can repleace markdown in most tags and also works well as a static site generator. What else do you want me to say